Keeping your joints healthy Dear Reader, For a disease that affects 50 million adults in the United States — about one in five — arthritis is remarkably misunderstood. Many people believe it’s a crippling and inevitable part of growing old. But things are changing. Treatments are better, and plenty of people age well without much arthritis. People also tend to think of arthritis as a single disease. In fact, there are more than different types of arthritis. Although they all affect joints, their causes and treatments can vary considerably. They also affect people of all ages. While some types, such as osteoarthritis, are more common among the elderly, more than half of the people affected by all types of arthritis are younger than And arthritis is the leading cause of disability in Americans older than
Mattress buying guide: how to choose a mattress
Types[ edit ] A mortise is a cavity cut into a timber to receive a tenon. There are several kinds of mortise: Stub mortise a shallow mortise, the depth of which depends on the size of the timber; also a mortise that does not go through the workpiece as opposed to a “through mortise”. Through mortise Wedged half- dovetail a mortise in which the back is wider, or taller, than the front, or opening. The space for the wedge initially leaves room to insert the tenon.
Dating Furniture THE KNAPP JOINT One of the first things to be looked at when trying to determine the age of a piece of older or antique furniture is the type of joinery used in its construction.
American Furniture Many vintage furniture buyers opt for quality reproductions that are more affordable, and either option is fine providing that you research your subject well when identifying antique furniture. There is no exact science where antique furniture is concerned; you simply make an educated decision based on what is most important to you. Researching and Identifying Antique Furniture Becoming knowledgeable about antique furniture takes research, even if you are focusing on only one aspect of this wide-ranging subject.
Many collectors prefer particular eras, styles, and makers, while others have more eclectic tastes. Get an expert opinion: A trained eye is more likely to find an undervalued treasure or a clever fake than a novice ever would. Use the press and stay informed about current trends and potential scams in the antique trade by consulting popular and highly regarded antique trade publications.
Consider practical matters Carefully: Always check the size and weight of any piece of antique furniture that interests you. Shipping furniture can be a costly proposition.
Your Wooden Garden Furniture Can Outlive You – Here’s How…
It was with much persuasion and joking – after she consulted the manager and her colleagues – in whispers of course – that she sort of relented. Sort of, meaning she switched to the “Ask Me” option which allows you to buy what you want and construct it yourself. Around 20 minutes later we had nearly everything they forgot two McChickens , with a side order of embarrassment and a hefty bill.
First, dating furniture is a fine art. Seldom does one clue provide confirmation of anything. Also important are style (including hardware), shrinkage, nails, screws, locks, the primary and secondary woods used, the type of finish, tell-tale tool marks, areas of wear and general appearance.
Egypt Beds, stools, throne chairs, and boxes were the chief forms of furniture in ancient Egypt. Although only a few important examples of actual furniture survive, stone carvings, fresco paintings, and models made as funerary offerings present rich documentary evidence. The bed may have been the earliest form; it was constructed of wood and consisted of a simple framework supported on four legs. A flax cord, plaited, was lashed to the sides of the framework.
The cords were woven together from opposite sides of the framework to form a springy surface for the sleeper. In the 18th dynasty c. The great beds found in the tomb of Tutankhamen were put together with bronze hooks and staples so that they could be dismantled or folded to facilitate storage and transportation; furniture existed in small quantities and when the pharaohs toured their lands, they took their beds with them. In the same tomb was a folding wooden bed with bronze hinges. Instead of pillows, wooden or ivory headrests were used.
These were so essentially individual, being made to the measure of the owner, that they were often placed in tombs to be used by the dead man on his arrival in the land of eternity. Folding headrests were probably for the use of travellers. Early stools for ceremonial purposes were merely squared blocks of stone. When made of wood, the stool had a flint seat later shaped concavely covered with a soft cushion.
Dating Furniture Using Dovetail Joints
Egypt Beds, stools, throne chairs, and boxes were the chief forms of furniture in ancient Egypt. Although only a few important examples of actual furniture survive, stone carvings, fresco paintings, and models made as funerary offerings present rich documentary evidence. The bed may have been the earliest form; it was constructed of wood and consisted of a simple framework supported on four legs. A flax cord, plaited, was lashed to the sides of the framework. The cords were woven together from opposite sides of the framework to form a springy surface for the sleeper.
In the 18th dynasty c.
Dovetail joints are strong and require skill to produce, so they’re generally a sign of a well-made piece. Hand-cut dovetails can date an older American piece to before , although hobbyists and specialty makers still use them.
Dovetails – A Clue for Dating Antiques by Ken Melchert Dovetail joints often hold two boards together in a box or drawer, almost like interlocking the fingertips of your hands. As the dovetail joint evolved through the last one hundred thirty years, it becomes a clue for the age and authenticity of antique furniture. The type of dovetailed joint, especially in drawers, reveals much about furniture construction and dating. With just a little study of these examples, it is easy to spot true hand made construction vs.
The earliest examples are from furniture placed with mummies in Egypt thousands of years ago, and also in the burials of ancient Chinese emperors. For thousands of years, a dovetail joint was created by a skilled cabinetmaker using small, precision saws and wood chisels. Tiny angled saw cuts were followed by careful cutting by a sharpened chisel on both sides to avoid splintering.
Mortise and tenon
Furniture Wood If you have a worn old dresser or rickety heirloom chair on your hands, you may be thinking of refinishing it yourself. Older mass-produced pieces whose origins fall somewhere between and are ideal candidates for refinishing. However, if you have questions about how old your piece is, consult an expert first, says Teri Masaschi , author of Foolproof Wood Finishing: Here are some general guidelines to assessing the age and quality of your piece.
But keep in mind that there are lots of exceptions to these rules, so err on the side of caution. Hand-cut dovetails can date an older American piece to before , although hobbyists and specialty makers still use them.
How to turn in more than one axis to create cabriole legs — a furniture feature made popular in the Queen Anne style. Multi-axis turning is a furniture-making technique dating to the Queen Anne period.
All have single-graded cuts which were probably produced by use of a chisel and then hardened using powdered antler or horn, a practice described by Theophilus. Other Types of Tools There are a few types of tools for which we do not have surviving examples in the archaeological record. However, workshop debris and literary references provide additional clues.
Pole Lathe Diagram of a Pole Lathe We know that the Viking Age woodcrafter had access to a medieval type of “power tool” which is known today as a pole lathe. A pole lathe is a simple wood turning lathe which is itself made of wood. The tool is powered by the springiness of the “pole” or green limb, and the action of a person’s foot on the treadle. The motive power is a foot, with a return spring the pole to counter rotate the work.
What joint is thi?
See Article History Alternative Title: Furniture ranges widely from the simple pine chest or stick-back country chair to the most elaborate marquetry work cabinet or gilded console table. The functional and decorative aspects of furniture have been emphasized more or less throughout history according to economics and fashion. Chairs are always for sitting in, but some are more comfortable or highly ornamented than others.
Accessory furnishings are smaller subsidiary items such as clocks, mirrors, tapestries, fireplaces, panelling , and other items complementary to an interior scheme. Photograph by Jenny O’Donnell.
Examining these joints helps determine the age of old furniture. It’s called a “dovetail” joint because the flat-bottomed triangular shape of the wood insert looks like a dove’s tail.
Get adequately obsessive about wood maintenance and it might even outlast you. You might not last another hundred years, but your garden table might if you treat it right. To mark their th anniversary they decided to find the oldest Passmore shed still in use. They found it in Chatham, where it had provided gardening pleasure since and was still going strong. How to keep your wood garden furniture in tip top condition Now for the sensible bit. How, exactly, do you maintain garden furniture to extend its life as long as possible, save cash, prevent waste and create a small piece of family history?
A large part of it is down to regularity. The longer you leave it between cleaning and maintenance sessions, the worse the everyday wear and tear will be. If you get to grips with it and diary a maintenance routine at the end of every summer, before the bad weather sets in, and store your garden furniture indoors instead of leaving it out all year round, you are already onto a serious winner. Or, if you have a lot of furniture to clean, use a high pressure spray gadget.
The water comes out at considerable pressure and simply blasts off the debris. Dry out thoroughly — You should let the furniture dry out completely before taking the next step.
Woodworking in the Viking Age
By Bob Flexner Pages A while back, my wife and I were visiting friends who wanted to show us their collection of antique furniture. At one point we went into their bedroom and I headed directly for a very old-looking chest-of-drawers. I just wanted to date the piece by how the drawer was made. Construction Drawer construction has changed several times in the last years. Simply pull a drawer out a few inches, glance at the joinery on the side and feel the drawer bottom underneath — essentially a single motion.
In addition, the wood used for the drawer sides and bottoms helps determine whether the furniture is American or European.
When it comes to drawer joints three are 3 distinct quality. Hand cut dovetails- oldest. The size of the pins and tails are uneven. The pins are narrower than the tails.
A History of Liberty Furniture by Barbara Morris There is a considerable variety in the furniture and styles of interior decoration produced by Liberty’s between and The catalogue of oriental goods, Eastern Art Manufactures and Decorative Objects, published in , included a section labeled ‘Department D’, with carved wooden pieces from China and Japan, together with cane chairs, stools and wastepaper baskets from North Africa. Apart from these imported foods, small items of bamboo furniture such as overmantels and shelves are described as ‘Anglo-Oriental’.
The catalogue also offered to have ‘Special designs made to order drawings post free’. This Anglo-Oriental furniture was made by a French craftsman, Monsieur Ursin Fortier, originally – a basket maker, who had premises in Soho. Liberty’s placed their first order with M. Fortier in and he continued to work exclusively for Liberty’s throughout the ‘s, supplying a variety bamboo furniture including chairs and tables, cabinets and writing desks inset with panels of Japanese lacquer, leather paper or ‘old fold’ matting, and smaller items such as hanging shelves, easels and cakestands.
Liberty are evidently educating their Oriental producers as to the wants of our market and the result is that an English home can he almost entirely furnished with Eastern goods’. Such furniture, however, would have had a limited appeal, and it became obvious that a wider range should be available. The Thebes stools Among the earliest items of furniture that can be fully documented were two stools, based on ancient Egyptian prototypes, both called the ‘Thebes’ and registered in